There are six known categories for pregnancy loss: chromosomal, anatomic, immunologic, infectious, egg quality, and unknown. Close to fifty percent of all pregnancy loss falls into the unknown category. Despite this, there is still hope for those who experience recurrent pregnancy loss.
Additionally, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be used. With PGD, embryos can be tested for the known genetic abnormality after performing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Only embryos that are chromosomally normal are then transferred to the uterus, an attempt to achieve a pregnancy that is unaffected by the chromosomal abnormality.
Anatomic abnormalities can also be seen in women who have been exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) as in the womb. Unfortunately, there is no correction for these abnormalities, but steps to increase chances of a successful pregnancy can be taken for those who were exposed to DES.
Surgical options offer a greatly improved prognosis for women with anatomic causes of recurrent miscarriage. For example, if a patient has a uterine septum, her chances of pregnancy loss without treatment are 70 percent. Once corrected via surgery, however, her chance of pregnancy loss returns to that of those without abnormalities.